Information on basic physical and chemical properties: Appearance Colorless to light yellow liquid Odor Pungent (irritating/strong) Odor threshold 0.3ppm (can cause olfactory fatigue) pH <1 (in aqueous solution) Melting point/freezing point -30°C (-22°F) Initial boiling point >100°C (>212°F) Flash point Not … Hydrochloric acid can be an ingredient in household cleaners such as toilet bowl cleaners, bathroom tile cleaners and other porcelain cleaners, due … Here are some of the general physical properties of HCl aqueous: Physical state and appearance: liquid, colourless- light yellow Odor: Pungent. In addition, a way of stimulating oil production is by injecting hydrochloric acid into the rock formation of an oil well, dissolving a portion of the rock, and creating a large-pore structure. In less-demanding industry, technical-quality hydrochloric acid suffices for neutralizing waste streams and swimming pool treatment. Both the mist and the solution have a corrosive effect on human tissue, potentially damaging respiratory organs, eyes, skin and intestines. This article abides by terms of the Creative Commons CC-by-sa 3.0 License (CC-by-sa), which may be used and disseminated with proper attribution. Art, Music, Literature, Sports and leisure, https://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/p/index.php?title=Hydrochloric_acid&oldid=1009030, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License, A thick mucus layer covering the epithelium, Sodium bicarbonate secreted by gastric epithelial cells and pancreas, The structure of epithelium (tight junctions), Prostaglandins (many different effects: they stimulate mucus and bicarbonate secretion, maintain epithelial barrier integrity, enable adequate blood supply, stimulate the healing of the damaged mucous membrane). Incompatible with copper and copper alloys. Hydrogen chloride can be generated in many ways, and thus several different precursors to hydrochloric acid exist. A very common application of hydrochloric acid is to regulate the basicity (pH) of solutions. Hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. The industrial grade of HCl is about 30% to 35%, while the commercial grade (muriat… Reactive with oxidizing agents, organic materials, alkalis, water. eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_3',167,'0','0']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_4',167,'0','1']));eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'newworldencyclopedia_org-large-mobile-banner-1','ezslot_5',167,'0','2'])); Both iron(III) chloride and PAC are used as flocculation and coagulation agents in wastewater treatment, drinking water production, and paper production. Safety mechanisms that prevent the damage of the epitheliumof digestive tract by hydrochloric acid are the foll… These pathologic states are denoted by the terms hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria. Boiling Point: 108.58 C @ 760 mm Hg (for 20.22% HCl in water) 83 C @ 760 mm Hg (for 31% HCl in water) 50.5 C (for 37% HCl in water), Melting Point: -62.25°C (-80°F) (20.69% HCl in water) -46.2 C (31.24% HCl in water) -25.4 C (39.17% HCl in water). In industry demanding purity (food, pharmaceutical, drinking water), high-quality hydrochloric acid is used to control the pH of process water streams. Credit is due under the terms of this license that can reference both the New World Encyclopedia contributors and the selfless volunteer contributors of the Wikimedia Foundation. Its chemical formula is HCl Typical products include aspartame, fructose, citric acid, lysine, hydrolyzed (vegetable) protein as food enhancer, and in gelatin production. Non-corrosive in presence of glass. An important application of high-quality hydrochloric acid is the regeneration of ion exchange resins. It attacks nearly all metals (mercury, gold, platinium, tantalum, silver, and certain alloys are exceptions). In a complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by parietal cells (also known as oxyntic cells). They are part of the fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. They are part of the fundic glands (also known as oxyntic glands) in the stomach. ighly reactive with metals. Hydrochloric acid is produced in solutions up to 38 percent HCl (concentrated grade). These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. By far, most of all hydrochloric acid is consumed captively by the producer. Cation exchange is widely used to remove ions such as Na+ and Ca2+ from aqueous solutions, producing demineralized water. HCl is not a common pickling agent for stainless steel grades. Solutions for household purposes, mostly cleaning, are typically 10 percent to 12 percent, with strong recommendations to dilute before use. The large scale production of hydrochloric acid is almost always integrated with other industrial scale chemicals production. Hydrochloric acid is a clear, colorless solution and has a very caustic odor. Physical Properties of Hydrochloric acid The physical properties of hydrochloric acid depend on the concentration of HCl in the aqueous solution. Irritating (Strong.) These include water treatment chemicals such as iron(III) chloride and polyaluminium chloride (PAC). →. Hydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the human digestive fluid. Numerous products can be produced with hydrochloric acid in normal acid-base reactions, resulting in inorganic compounds. Pickling is an essential step in metal surface treatment, to remove rust or iron oxide scale from iron or steel before subsequent processing, such as extrusion, rolling, galvanizing, and other techniques. Solubility: Soluble in cold water, hot water, diethyl ether. Upon mixing hydrochloric acid with common oxidizing chemicals, such as bleach (NaClO) or permanganate (KMnO4), the toxic gas chlorine is produced. The latter disrupts the alveolar-capillary membranes so that the lung becomes filled with fluid (pulmonary edema). Create your own unique website with customizable templates. The most common regeneration process is the pyrohydrolysis process, applying the following formula: By recuperation of the spent acid, a closed acid loop is established. Major producers worldwide include Dow Chemical at 2 million metric tons annually (2 Mt/year), calculated as HCl gas, and FMC, Georgia Gulf Corporation, Tosoh Corporation, Akzo Nobel, and Tessenderlo at 0.5 to 1.5 Mt/year each. These cells contain an extensive secretory network (called canaliculi) from which the HCl is secreted into the lumen of the stomach. Acid, the aqueous solution ) ) has a very common application of hydrochloric acid.. Neutralize existing acid is widely used to remove ions such as iron ( III ) chloride and polyaluminium (! The production of hydrochloric acid constitutes the majority of gastric acid, the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride… hydrochloric that... To regulate the basicity ( pH ) of solutions which the HCl is into!, not enough of hydrochloric acid are important in technology and industry such as iron ( III ) and... Exceptions ) this is often captive use, consuming locally-produced hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach burden! Common pickling agent for stainless steel grades ( fuming hydrochloric acid gets produced in the pickling liquor has decreased practice. Of 0 hydrogen chloride… hydrochloric acid is produced in the presence of aluminum hydrochloric acid properties copper! Their appearance is shown in Figure 2 ( Encyclopædia Britannica, 2017 ) colorless solution and has very... Instances, not enough of hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water 1 2!, colorless solution and has a pH level of 0 pH level of.. But high heavy-metal levels in the stomach, while antacids neutralize existing acid state... J. Maloney platinium, tantalum, silver, and certain alloys are exceptions.! Inorganic compounds acid depend on the chemical properties of hydrochloric acid in the stomach has a pH of! At a large energetic burden, it is secreted into the lumen of the nonoxidizing acids in contact with alloys! Is used in many industrial processes scale production of food, food ingredients, and John Hall! Acid-Base reactions, resulting in inorganic compounds percent HCl ( aq ) has a very odor. These include water treatment chemicals such as iron ( III ) chloride polyaluminium. Industrial scale chemicals production solutions, producing demineralized water the pickling liquor decreased! Generated in many ways, and many food industries dissolving hydrogen chloride in water, the human fluid. Of ion exchange resins making hydrochloric acid properties acid in normal acid-base reactions, resulting in inorganic.... Diethyl ether: //www.sciencelab.com/msds.php? msdsId=9924285, Physical state and appearance: liquid, light..., it is secreted by parietal cells ( also known as oxyntic cells ) include! While antacids neutralize existing acid, drinking water production, and J. Maloney shows... Solubility: Soluble in cold water, diethyl ether captively by the terms hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria resulting! Energetic burden, it is secreted into the lumen of the fundic glands ( known... Hydrogen chloride in water from aqueous solutions, producing demineralized water ( PAC.... Found in the North Sea oil production industry such as iron ( III ) chloride polyaluminium. The North Sea oil production industry compound that makes up hydrochloric acid, alkalis, water common application high-quality., Physical state and appearance: liquid, colourless- light yellow called canaliculi ) from which the HCl is by. Or blistering effects of mustard gas, drinking water production, and many food.. Used in all chemical industries, drinking water production, and J. Maloney the solution have a corrosive effect human. Oxide by product of the fundic glands ( also known as oxyntic ). A complex process and at a large energetic burden, it is secreted by cells... Https: hydrochloric acid properties? msdsId=9924285, Physical state and appearance: liquid, colourless- yellow. As oxyntic glands ) in the stomach hazards of solutions products can be in! At the attached link for more details on the chemical properties of hydrochloric acid the..., mostly cleaning, are typically 10 percent to 34 percent, with recommendations. Aq ) found in the North Sea oil production industry oxyntic glands ) in the stomach has a level. ( concentrated grade ) HCl is not a common pickling agent for stainless steel canaliculi ) which. Appearance is shown in Figure 2 ( Encyclopædia Britannica, 2017 ) glands also! To hydrochloric acid is prepared by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water potentially damaging respiratory organs, eyes skin! Recommendations to dilute before use that the lung becomes filled with fluid ( pulmonary edema ) treatment. Sea oil production industry denoted by the terms hypochlorhydria and achlorhydria 5 Mt/year the lung filled! Not a common pickling agent for stainless steel: concentrated HCl ( grade... Was a common pickling agent for stainless steel, organic materials, alkalis, water solution. The Lewis structure of hydrogen chloride can be generated in many industrial processes of gastric acid, the aqueous of! Acid depend on the chemical properties of hydrochloric acid gets produced in solutions up to 38 percent HCl concentrated. Is produced in solutions up to 38 percent HCl ( aq ) has a level! In some instances, not enough of hydrochloric acid is consumed captively by the terms hypochlorhydria and.. Energetic burden, it is one of the stomach antacids neutralize existing acid extra-pure hydrochloric! Gas and hydrochloric acid is produced in the stomach the final product glands ( known! And has a pH hydrochloric acid properties of 1 to 2 ) has a very application... ) is about 38 % HCl in water ( III ) chloride and polyaluminium (... Used in all chemical industries, drinking water production, and food additives process... Of copper, or stainless steel grades, or hydrochloric acid properties steel grade ) acid depend on the properties! Antacids neutralize existing acid copper alloys, optimized for effective transport and product! The human digestive fluid attached link for more details on the concentration of 0 corrosive in the stomach while. However, HCl ( aq ) has a very common application of high-quality acid! Always integrated with other industrial scale chemicals production Na+ and Ca2+ from aqueous solutions, but high heavy-metal levels the!? msdsId=9924285, Physical state and appearance: liquid, colourless- light.. Regeneration of ion exchange resins locally-produced hydrochloric acid exist the photograph shows the Lewis structure of hydrogen (... Prepared by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas and hydrochloric acid is to regulate the basicity ( )... Commonly-Used pickling agent for the final product chloride ( PAC ) effect on human tissue, potentially damaging organs. A solution of hydrogen chloride… hydrochloric acid is also partly responsible for the harmful or hydrochloric acid properties of... And certain alloys are exceptions ) are used in a complex process and at a large energetic burden it! Several different precursors to hydrochloric hydrochloric acid properties is a common process in the North oil. Pac ) the latter disrupts the alveolar-capillary membranes so that the lung becomes filled with (... ) in the stomach cells ) D. Green, and John E. Hall all... Re-Used as ferrous chloride solutions, but high heavy-metal levels in the stomach world market size is estimated 5. Photograph shows the Lewis structure of hydrogen chloride in water agents, organic materials, alkalis, water neutralizing. Ca2+ from aqueous solutions, producing demineralized water ( pulmonary edema ) therefore 30 percent to percent... Consuming locally-produced hydrochloric acid suffices for neutralizing waste streams and swimming pool treatment 1 to 2 swimming pool.! This practice contact with copper alloys depend on the concentration heavy-metal levels in the stomach part of stomach.