Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. In the European part of Russia the war was fought across three main fronts: the eastern, the southern and the northwestern. Stewart-Smith, D.G. Orlando Figes, Revolutionary Russia, 2014. Wrangel's fleet evacuated him and his army to Constantinople on 14 November 1920, ending the struggle of Reds and Whites in Southern Russia. That suspicion was bolstered by the German Foreign Ministry's sponsorship of Lenin's return to Petrograd. By mid-June the Reds were chased from the Crimea and the Odessa area. The majority of this overview is based on the work by Orlando Figes. General Anatoly Pepelyayev continued armed resistance in the Ayano-Maysky District until June 1923.  Although this communication failure weakened the Red Army, the Bolsheviks continued their efforts to gain support for the Bolshevik Party in Central Asia by holding a second regional conference in March. Simultaneously Russian officers' organisations overthrew the Bolsheviks in Petropavlovsk (in present-day Kazakhstan) and in Omsk. At the same time, the Western Allies, desperately pressed by a new German offensive in northern France in the spring of 1918, were eager to create another front in the east by reviving at least a part of the Russian army. According to Pravda, "The workers of the towns and some of the villages choke in the throes of hunger. The original purpose of intervention, to revive an eastern front against Germany, was now meaningless. The Russian civil war raged from 1918 to 1921, though some date its origins to the October Revolution in 1917 and others date its end in 1922 with the final crushing of peasant revolts and reconquest of the Caucasus; still others see its end as late as … Fighting off its pursuers without respite, the army succeeded in breaking its way through back towards the Don, where the Cossack uprising against Bolsheviks had started. 1917. On 25 October 1922 Vladivostok fell to the Red Army, and the Provisional Priamur Government was extinguished. By 1921 cultivated land had shrunk to 62% of the pre-war area, and the harvest yield was only about 37% of normal. With the loss of the Japanese from the war, the Tsar's eastern troops were freed up and the Russian High command didn't have to worry about a dangerous two front war with Germany and Japan, both backed up by Britain. Only a few hundred of them reached Persia in June 1920. Russian Civil War Historiography. During the entire period of the Russian Civil War, roughly 1.3–2 million people left the country. Russian civil war to New Economic Policy 22 Terms. So what if it was more infectious, infectious enough to cripple the Soviet government, army, and economy? TEST. On 13 October Gen. Kazanovich's division took Armavir, and on 1 November Gen. Pyotr Wrangel secured Stavropol. However, he failed to gain control of Tashkent, Bukhara and Khiva. A review of Red Army troops in Moscow in 1918. The Red Army recaptured Kiev on 17 December and the defeated Cossacks fled back towards the Black Sea. While the civil war both banks and industries were kept nationalized. Western socialists had promptly arrived from France and from the UK to convince the Russians to continue the fight, but could not change the new pacifist mood of Russia. In January 1918 the Bolsheviks dissolved the Russian Constituent Assembly and proclaimed the Soviets (workers' councils) as the new government of Russia. In Omsk the Russian Provisional Government quickly came under the influence – then the dominance – of its new War Minister, Rear-Admiral Kolchak. He was awarded the Distinguished Service Order for his bravery during the June 1919 battle of Tsaritsyn for single-handedly storming and capturing the fortified city of Tsaritsyn, under heavy shell fire in a single tank; this led to the capture of over 40,000 prisoners. Trotsky extended the use of the death penalty to the occasional political commissar whose detachment retreated or broke in the face of the enemy. The Russian Civil War is an historical event that brings together many different phenomena related to twentieth century history. What was left was an extreme, vicious regime that was to rule Russia … James-Swole-Allen. Russian Civil War . By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica.  The forced conscription drive had mixed results, successfully creating a larger army than the Whites, but with members indifferent towards Marxist–Leninist ideology. Pursued into the Crimea by Makhno's troops, Wrangel went over to the defensive in the Crimea. Germany landed its Caucasus Expedition troops in Poti on 8 June. , The Red Army also utilized former Tsarist officers as "military specialists" (voenspetsy); sometimes their families were taken hostage in order to ensure their loyalty.  The Leagues of Mohammedam Working People, which Russian settlers and natives who had been sent to work behind the lines for the Tsarist government in 1916 formed in March 1917, had led numerous strikes in the industrial centers throughout September 1917.  By its end, 83% of all Red Army divisional and corps commanders were ex-Tsarist soldiers.. On 18 November a coup d'état established Kolchak as dictator. It examines the appearance of competing centres of power, the attempt of those centres to mobilize support, and the ultimate victory of the Communists. The moderates were gone.  The Orenburg Independent Army was formed from Orenburg Cossacks and others troops which rebelled against the Bolsheviks. On December 1922, when the Soviet Union or USSR was created, the non-Russian nationals were given political autonomy.  Adm. Kolchak lost control of his government shortly after this defeat; White Army forces in Siberia essentially ceased to exist by December. By 1922 there were at least 7,000,000 street children in Russia as a result of nearly ten years of devastation from World War I and the civil war.. Russian Civil War Overview / Historiography. In this lesson we're going to discuss the events around the Russian Civil war. Jessica_Lascelles.  Boris Sennikov estimated the total losses among the population of Tambov region in 1920 to 1922 resulting from the war, executions, and imprisonment in concentration camps as approximately 240,000.